The Italian preposition 'contro' generally means 'against' or 'opposed to'. It is used to indicate a contrast or conflict between two entities.
Il cane abbaia contro il gatto.
The dog barks against the cat.
Cammino contro il vento.
I walk towards the wind.
Meaning: in contrast to
Questa opinione va contro la mia.
This opinion goes against mine.
Meaning: compared to
La sua altezza è nulla contro la montagna.
His height is nothing compared to the mountain.
Meaning: in exchange for
Ti do questo regalo contro il tuo aiuto.
I give you this gift in exchange for your help.
A1: Vado contro il muro.
A1: I go against the wall.
A1: Lui è contro la violenza.
A1: He is against violence.
A1: Il cane corre contro il gatto.
A1: The dog runs towards the cat.
B1: Sono andato contro le regole.
B1: I went against the rules.
B1: La squadra ha lottato contro i campioni in carica.
B1: The team fought against the reigning champions.
B2: Ho deciso di andare contro il parere dei miei genitori.
B2: I decided to go against my parents' opinion.
C1: Mi sono ribellato contro l'autorità costituita.
C1: I rebelled against the established authority.
C1: La società si sta mobilitando contro l'inquinamento ambientale.
C1: Society is mobilizing against environmental pollution.
C2: È stato accusato di cospirare contro lo Stato.
C2: He was accused of conspiring against the State.
In Italian, the preposition 'contro' is commonly used in various contexts. For instance, it can be used to express physical opposition, such as 'lottare contro il vento' (to fight against the wind) or 'andare contro corrente' (to go against the current). It can also be used to express disagreement or disapproval, such as 'sono contro la pena di morte' (I am against the death penalty) or 'essere contro le regole' (to be opposed to the rules).
Moreover, 'contro' can also be used in a figurative sense, to indicate an emotional or mental opposition. For example, 'sentirsi contro tutti' (to feel opposed by everyone) or 'aver qualcosa contro qualcuno' (to have something against someone). In some cases, it can even be used to indicate a comparison between two things, such as 'questo vino non è niente contro quello che abbiamo bevuto ieri sera' (this wine is nothing compared to what we drank last night).
It is important to note that the usage of 'contro' can vary depending on the context and the verb it is combined with. Therefore, it is recommended to study its different meanings and uses in order to use it correctly in conversation and writing.