Dovere is an Italian verb that expresses obligation, necessity or duty. It is often translated as 'must', 'have to' or 'should'.
Devi fare i compiti.
You have to do your homework.
Dovrebbe piovere domani.
It should rain tomorrow.
Dobbiamo comprare il latte.
We need to buy milk.
Dovresti chiamare tua madre.
You should call your mother.
Dovrei studiare di più.
I should study more.
A1: Io devo studiare italiano.
A1: I have to study Italian.
A1: Tu devi fare i compiti.
A1: You have to do your homework.
A1: Lui deve andare a scuola.
A1: He has to go to school.
B1: Noi abbiamo dovuto lavorare tutto il giorno.
B1: We had to work all day.
B2: Voi dovevate chiamarmi ieri sera.
B2: You were supposed to call me last night.
B2: Lei dovrà prendere un taxi per arrivare in tempo.
B2: She will have to take a taxi to arrive on time.
C1: Hanno detto che avrei dovuto partire prima.
C1: They said that I should have left earlier.
C1: Spero che tu debba venire alla festa domani.
C1: I hope you have to come to the party tomorrow.
C2: Se fossi ricco, non dovrei lavorare più.
C2: If I were rich, I wouldn't have to work anymore.
The verb dovere is a modal verb and it is used to express different degrees of obligation or necessity. For example, 'Devo studiare' means 'I must study', while 'Dovrei studiare' means 'I should study'. The first sentence implies a stronger obligation than the second one.
Dovere can also be used to express past obligations or duties that were not fulfilled. For instance, 'Avrei dovuto studiare' means 'I should have studied', implying regret for not having done so.
It is important to note that dovere is often followed by the infinitive form of another verb, which indicates the action that needs to be taken. For example, 'Devi mangiare' means 'You must eat', where 'mangiare' is the infinitive form of the verb 'to eat'.