Lei is an Italian pronoun that means 'she' in English. It is the third person singular feminine pronoun and is used to refer to a female subject.
Meaning: third person singular feminine pronoun (she/her)
Lei è molto simpatica.
She is very nice.
Meaning: formal second person singular pronoun (you)
Lei ha già deciso?
Have you already decided?
Meaning: feminine singular definite article (the)
La ragazza che ho visto ieri sera era molto carina.
The girl I saw last night was very pretty.
A1: Lei è una studentessa.
She is a student.
A1: Ho visto lei al supermercato.
I saw her at the supermarket.
A2: Lei mangia la pizza.
She eats pizza.
B1: Le ho detto di venire qui.
I told her to come here. (simple past)
B1: Lei sta lavorando da casa oggi.
She is working from home today. (present continuous)
B2: Lei avrebbe dovuto chiamarmi ieri sera.
She should have called me last night. (conditional)
C1: Nonostante lei abbia studiato tanto, non ha passato l'esame.
Despite studying so much, she didn't pass the exam. (present subjunctive)
C1: Lei era già partita quando sono arrivato.
She had already left when I arrived. (past perfect)
C2: Se lei fosse stata qui, avremmo risolto tutto insieme.
If she had been here, we would have solved everything together. (imperfect subjunctive)
In Italian, like in many other languages, there are different pronouns for different genders and numbers. Lei is the pronoun used to refer to a single female subject. For example, if you want to say 'She is beautiful' in Italian, you would say 'Lei è bella'.
It's important to note that lei is also used as a formal way of addressing someone, regardless of their gender. This means that if you're speaking with someone you don't know very well or who is older than you, it's common to use lei instead of tu (the informal singular pronoun).
Finally, it's worth mentioning that the word lei has another meaning in Italian: it can also be used as a noun to refer to a law or rule. However, this usage is less common than the pronoun usage.