Per is an Italian preposition that is commonly used to indicate a purpose, goal, or destination.
Ho comprato un regalo per mia madre.
I bought a gift for my mother.
Abbiamo camminato per il parco.
We walked through the park.
Ho mandato la lettera per posta.
I sent the letter by mail.
Meaning: in order to
Sto studiando per diventare medico.
I am studying in order to become a doctor.
Meaning: per capita
Il reddito pro capite è aumentato quest'anno.
The per capita income has increased this year.
A1: Ho bisogno di un libro per la lezione di italiano.
I need a book for the Italian lesson.
A1: Questo regalo è per te.
This gift is for you.
A1: Vado al supermercato per comprare il latte.
I'm going to the supermarket to buy milk.
B1: Sono andato in palestra per fare esercizio fisico.
I went to the gym to exercise.
B1: Ho studiato tanto per passare l'esame di matematica.
I studied a lot to pass the math exam.
B1: Lavoro qui da tre anni per migliorare il mio italiano.
I've been working here for three years to improve my Italian.
C1: Siamo partiti presto per arrivare in tempo all'aeroporto.
We left early to arrive at the airport on time.
C1: Ho imparato l'italiano per poter lavorare in Italia.
I learned Italian so that I could work in Italy.
C1: Abbiamo fatto tutto il possibile per risolvere il problema.
We did everything possible to solve the problem.
Per is one of the most versatile and commonly used prepositions in the Italian language. It can be used to indicate a wide range of meanings, including purpose, goal, destination, duration, and more. For example, you might use per to say that you are going to the store for some milk (per il latte), or that you are studying for an exam (per l'esame).
One important thing to note about per is that it is often used in combination with other words to create compound prepositions. For example, you might use per + quanto riguarda to mean 'as far as...is concerned', or per + mezzo di to mean 'by means of'. These compound prepositions can be very useful for expressing complex ideas and relationships between different elements in a sentence.
Finally, it's worth noting that per can sometimes be used in idiomatic expressions that don't have a direct translation into English. For example, you might hear someone say per carità! to mean 'for heaven's sake!' or per fortuna to mean 'fortunately'. These expressions can take some time to learn and understand, but they are an important part of mastering the Italian language.