Sopra is an Italian adverb that means 'above' or 'on top of'. It is commonly used to indicate a position or location relative to another object or surface.
Il gatto è sopra il tavolo.
The cat is above the table.
Meaning: on top of
Ho messo la giacca sopra la sedia.
I put the jacket on top of the chair.
Non so niente sopra questo argomento.
I don't know anything about this topic.
Meaning: more than
La temperatura è sopra i 30 gradi oggi.
The temperature is more than 30 degrees today.
A1: La tazza è sopra il tavolo.
The cup is on the table.
A1: Il gatto è sopra il muro.
The cat is on the wall.
A1: Ho messo la giacca sopra la sedia.
I put the jacket on the chair.
B1: Sopra la montagna c'è una nuvola nera.
Above the mountain there is a black cloud. (present simple)
B1: Siamo saliti sopra la torre per ammirare il panorama.
We climbed up the tower to admire the view. (present perfect)
B1: Sopra il tetto si vedevano le stelle.
Above the roof you could see the stars. (imperfect)
C1: Sopra ogni cosa, bisogna essere onesti con se stessi.
Above all, one must be honest with oneself. (present subjunctive)
C1: L'aquila volava sopra le vette delle montagne.
The eagle was flying above the mountain peaks. (past continuous)
C1: Sopra ogni aspettativa, ha ottenuto il lavoro dei suoi sogni.
Above all expectations, he got the job of his dreams. (past participle)
In Italian, sopra is often used in combination with prepositions such as di (of), a (to), and tra/fra (between/among) to convey different meanings. For example, sopra di can mean 'above/beyond', sopra a can mean 'on top of/over', and sopra tra/fra can mean 'among/between'.
Sopra can also be used figuratively to indicate a higher level or rank. For instance, someone may say 'sopra di lui' (above him) to refer to someone who holds a higher position in an organization or hierarchy.
Additionally, sopra is frequently used in musical terminology to indicate playing notes at a higher pitch. In this context, it is often abbreviated as 'sop.' and can be found in sheet music and musical instructions.